MUSTARD

MUSTARD (Heb. חַרְדָּל, ḥardal), the name applied to two species, the common mustard (Sinapis alba), known in rabbinical literature as "Egyptian mustard," and the kind called simply "mustard." The latter was extracted from the seeds of a different botanical genus, Brassica nigra, the mustard prepared from it being darker and more pungent than the former. This species, like white mustard, grows wild in Ereẓ Israel but was also cultivated. Given favorable conditions, the plant reaches a height of more than six feet. The aggadah relates that a man having sown "a single seed of mustard… would climb it as he would a fig tree" (TJ, Pe'ah 7:4, 206). The seed of this species is very small (1–1.6 mm.) and was used to indicate the smallest measure of size (Ber. 31a). The contrast between the size of the plant and the seed is used in a parable in the New Testament (Matt. 13:31). Although these two species of mustard belong to different botanical genera they are very similar in appearance (except that the white mustard plant is smaller and its seed larger). Hence the rule that mustard and Egyptian mustard do not constitute mixed species (kilayim; Kil. 1:2). Both have conspicuous yellow flowers (cf. Kil. 2:8–9). In Israel there are many species belonging to the family of Cruciferae which have yellow flowers and seeds with a pungent flavor. Among these the species Sinapis arvensis is very widespread. This is called in the Mishnah lafsan ("charlock") and it was laid down that "mustard and charlock, although resembling one another, do constitute kilayim" (Kil. 1:5). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Loew, Flora, 1 (1928), 516–27; H.N. and A.L. Moldenke, Plants of the Bible (1952), 316 (index), s.v.; J. Feliks, Kilei Zera'im ve-Harkavah (1967), 65–67, 256–69, 284–6; idem, Ẓimḥiyyat ha-Mishnah, in: Marot ha-Mishnah, Seder Zera'im (1967), 55f. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Feliks, Ha-Ẓome'aḥ, 69, 70, 97. (Jehuda Feliks)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Mustard — may refer to: Contents 1 The mustard plant and its products 2 Other uses 2.1 Names 2.2 Fictional names …   Wikipedia

  • Mustard — Mus tard, n. [OF. moustarde, F. moutarde, fr. L. mustum must, mustard was prepared for use by being mixed with must. See {Must}, n.] 1. (Bot.) The name of several cruciferous plants of the genus {Brassica} (formerly {Sinapis}), as {white mustard} …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • mustard — (n.) late 13c. (late 12c. as a surname), from O.Fr. mostarde mustard, mustard plant (Mod.Fr. moutarde), from moust must, from L. mustum new wine (see MUST (Cf. must) (n.1)); so called because it was originally prepared by adding must to the… …   Etymology dictionary

  • mustard — [mus′tərd] n. [ME mustarde < OFr moustarde < moust, must < L mustum (see MUST3): orig. prepared with must as an ingredient] 1. any of several annual herbs (genus Brassica) of the crucifer family, with yellow flowers and slender pods… …   English World dictionary

  • mustard — ► NOUN 1) a hot tasting yellow or brown paste made from the crushed seeds of a plant, eaten with meat or used in cooking. 2) a brownish yellow colour. ORIGIN Old French moustarde, from Latin mustum must (because mustard was originally prepared… …   English terms dictionary

  • mustard — /mus teuhrd/, n. 1. a pungent powder or paste prepared from the seed of the mustard plant, used as a food seasoning or condiment, and medicinally in plasters, poultices, etc. 2. any of various acrid or pungent plants, esp. of the genus Brassica,… …   Universalium

  • Mustard — William T., Canadian thoracic surgeon, 1914–1987. See M. operation, M. procedure. * * * mus·tard məs tərd n 1) a pungent yellow condiment consisting of the pulverized seeds of the black mustard or sometimes the white mustard either dry or made… …   Medical dictionary

  • mustard — 1. The dried ripe seeds of Brassica alba (white m.) and B. nigra (black m.) (family Cruciferae). 2. SYN: m. gas. [O.Fr. moustarde, fr. L. mustum, must] black m. the dried ripe seed of Brassica nigra or of B. juncea; it is the source of allyl… …   Medical dictionary

  • mustard — [[t]mʌ̱stə(r)d[/t]] mustards 1) N MASS Mustard is a yellow or brown paste usually eaten with meat. It tastes hot and spicy. ...a pot of mustard... Thinly paint the lamb with Dijon mustard. 2) N UNCOUNT Mustard is a small plant with yellow flowers …   English dictionary

  • mustard — /ˈmʌstəd / (say mustuhd) noun 1. a pungent powder or paste prepared from the seed of the mustard plant, much used as a food seasoning or condiment, and medicinally in plasters, poultices, etc. 2. any of various species of Brassica and allied… …   Australian English dictionary

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